While small quantities of precious commodities like lapis lazuli or obsidian were easily moved over long distances, the transport of relatively low-value, high-bulk goods, of which timber is an excellent example, is likely to be undertaken only in the context of a well-developed trading network, between roughly equal partners, and for substantial profits. The nature of the Indus civilization’s agricultural system is still largely a matter of conjecture due to the paucity of information surviving through the ages. Some of the raw materials required by the Harappans could be obtained from neighboring areas. The seals had a semicircular perforated boss on the back so that they could be carried on a cord or fastened to a belt or wrist strap. One would expect the society to whom the trade was of the greater importance to be the one that invested the labour in transporting such bulky goods. However, in some other regions, such as the adjacent north Gujarat plain, farming settlements did not become established and here hunter-gatherers continued their established way of life, often moving with the seasons to exploit the resources of different economies. This must reflect a resumption of links between the Iranian plateau and South Asia across the passes of Baluchistan, making use of pack and draft animals. Beginning about 3200 BC, groups of people in the Indus River Valley of what are today northwest India and southeast Pakistan began to… Food surpluses supported the large population and prompted the growth of trade. Mesopotamian material was found only in coastal settlements, in contrast to Harappan material, known throughout Magan, suggesting that Mesopotamian traders were confined to the coast. In the east the forests also held sal trees. Though not without its risks, such as storms and perhaps pirates, this was generally an easier and more efficient means of transporting goods, particularly bulky or heavy materials. During the early second millennium, two further pulses, of African origin, were added- hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), the latter being grown at Hulas and both appearing in South India after 1800 BC. Some consisted simply of a solid wooden platform above the axle, others had an open framework. The city workers used to make Pots, Plates, and glasses out of mud and clay to sell them. One of the features of the Indus civilization that most struck early researchers was its apparent uniformity- The material found in sites throughout the Indus realms seemed entirely uniform, with no regional or chronological variation. The independent city-states of Sumer and Akkad were united into a single state by Sargon of Akkad between 2334 and 2316 BC. Why do some people call Harappan civilization the "steatite civilization"? East and south of this area however ships were exposed to the perilous currents and storms of the Arabian Sea and to the strongly seasoned pattern of the winds. Other country craft include boats made of hollowed logs, and such vessels may also have been used by the Harappans for coastal or river travel and fishing, though only plank-built vessels would have been suitable for carrying any volume of cargo. This name probably referred to different areas of the Gulf at different times. Doors, to houses or storerooms, could similarly be sealed, a practice attested at the Helmand city of Shahr-i Sokhta and in Mesopotamian literary sources, though not known from any Harappan site. have taken part in long-distance trade. Local transport was on foot or by bullock cart. In the central region, Sindh, the Indus-Ganges doab, and perhaps the western Saraswati, the floods filled numerous hollows (dhands), which for some months acted as reservoirs from which to draw water to irrigate the crops; many held water until December and some as late as February. The economy of the Indus Valley Civilization primarily depended on trade. Decline in trade is the economic theory given for the fall of the Indus Valley civilization. Most of the major settlements were linked by a network of waterways that were navigable for at least part of the year. Agricultural economy thrived in the Indus Valley civilization.On lands surrounding the cities, farmers constructed dams and levees to channel water from the rivers to crops of wheat and barley. The Indus people probably used lifting gear such as the shadoof to raise irrigation water from these and from streams and channels. Hunter-gatherers were probably involved in the chain of communications. on scales, using stone weights. Tin was not used in the post-Harappan period when this eastern region was a focus of settlement, and in the first millennium BC tin was imported. Charred rice husks and impressions of rice husks and leaves in Harappan pottery have been found in this region, at Lothal and Rangpur. Over subsequent centuries, it expanded west and south. The irrigation system allowed this civilization to diversify its crops. Umm-an-Nar, situated on an island just off the western coast of Magan, was a major trading entrepot. Instead of being submerged they adapted their self-sufficient lifestyle, moving gradually into mutually beneficial interdependence with settled communities. Wheat was a staple, while peas, rice, and cotton were also grown. The Indus valley people had developed a prosperous civilization on the basis of their thriving agricultural economy. It is also referred to as Harappan Civilization owing to the fact that this civilization was first discovered in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Crawford (1998, 126) suggests that the under representation of women and children among the burials at Umm-an-Nar may reflect the role of this settlement as a specialist center for traders and sailors without families. Teak, generally useful and particularly suitable for shipbuilding because it is water-resistant, grew on the high ground in Gujarat, and in lower parts of the region barn grass (Sorghum halepensis) yielded tough tubular stems up to 5 meters long that were suitable for making smaller boats. It may have been through familiarity with the range of local flora that some summer-growing plants were brought under cultivation, introducing the innovation of kharif agriculture. Lead and copper c, ame from China and cedar tree wood was floated down the rivers from Kashmir and the Himalayas. During the third millennium, a number of indigenous cereals were brought under cultivation by the Indus civilization or by contemporary South Asian cultures. Know about Indus Valley Civilization or Harappa Civilization. Such coastal settlements in Oman and United Arab Emirates (UAE) have yielded stone net sinkers, fishhooks of shell or copper, and shell lures. Date palms grew in the Makran and in Sindh- As well as their fruit, they yielded wood, leaves for making baskets, mats, and roofs, and fiber for ropes and cords. From the Makran coast, it is a short, easy sea crossing, around 30-40 hours under sail, to Oman on the western side of the Gulf, known as Magan to the Mesopotamians, and seaborne relations between these areas may have been established by the early third millennium BC; fishing sites on me Oman coast are known by the fifth millennium. The people of the Kulli culture, presumably the descendants of Amri-Nal farmers and pastoralists of the region, seem to have combined pastoralism with sophisticated irrigation agriculture. Distinctive Kulli material included many figurines of bulls and women, as well as certain forms and decorative motifs in the pottery, such as straight-sided canisters and zoomorphic designs. Pastoralism and agriculture differed in their relative importance in each of the great diversity of environments that composed the Indus realms. This is known as rabi cultivation in South Asia. The economy depended greatly on trade, the inhabitants of the Indus Valley traded with Mesopotamia, Southern India, Afghanistan, and Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. By around 2800 BC, Elam no longer played a dominant role in eastern Iran, and from around 2300 it was incorporated into the empires of southern Mesopotamia, although the trading towns and trade network continued to flourish. Among the important resources of this region was salt, from the Salt Range where a Late Kot Diji settlement is known at Musakhel. - boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail. The Groundwater, rivers, lakes, streams, and especially floodwaters sufficed. Seals may have had a number of uses. All these data suggest that this local source of tin was not known in ancient times. The spread first of pastoral groups and later of farmers into the Indus plains and beyond into Gujarat and the Indo- Gangetic divide brought fanners and hunter-gatherers into closer contact, and in many areas this led to acculturation. Modern communities also live on houseboats on the Indus in Sindh. Kenoyer (1998, 99) notes that groups of weights have often been found near the gateways of Indus cities, suggesting that they were used by officials who were regulating the flow of goods into the city and collecting dues on them. Even lizards were caught and eaten. The coastal Harappans came to play a major role in seafaring in the Gulf and the Arabian Sea. Advancement of technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. The volume of these goods produced was quite out of proportion to the needs of the town’s modest resident population and the inhabitants of its hinterland. Islands off the western shore also offered opportunities for settlement. The production of cotton textiles may have meant that linen was of no interest to the Harappans. History, India, Ancient Period, Civilizations, Indus Civilization, Economy of the Indus Civilization. The Harappans enjoyed good trading relations with a number of other cultures of other cultures on their borders. Key materials involved in this trade included chlorite from Kerman, copper from a number of sources including the arsenic-rich deposits at Anarak in western Iran, tin from Afghanistan and the south Caspian, silver from Iran, steatite from southern Iran, turquoise from Central Asia, and gold from western Iran. First, they could have acted simply as tokens establishing an individual’s identity or credentials. Genetic evidence has recently established that rice was brought into cultivation in at least two separate areas. This is jewelry from Mesopotamia at the time, though the Indus Valley would have had its own gold jewelry. From Sutkagendor westward, the South Asian coast benefited, from the sheltered sailing conditions of the Gulf. By the fifth millennium, lapis and turquoise were also reaching Susiana and Mesopotamia at the western end of the Iranian plateau, showing that trading networks operated right across these regions. The Indus Valley civilisation was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with Elam and Sumer in southern Mesopotamia. Oil could also be obtained from linseed (Linum usitatissimum), which was found at Miri Qalat and a number of Harappan sites, including Nausharo and Rojdi. Settlements, such as Siraf, were established in some periods at points where a good anchorage existed, though such sheltered spots are few in number. The closely integrated nature of the Indus realms implies the existence of efficient communications networks, utilizing inland routes over land and by river and along the coast by sea. The ancient world consisted of four great civilizations: China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley Civilization. The margins of dhands and oxbow lakes, the latter formed by abandoned meanders of the Indus, allowed cultivation from year to year. Finds of Harappan material in the settlements of adjacent foraging, fishing, or farming cultures reveal the extent of their trading links. There is evidence, however, of the widespread cultivation of a species of Brassica, brown mustard (Indian rape), and of gourds in the Mature Harappan period, and later of ivy gourd, while okras were grown at Balathal in the neighboring Ahar-Banas region. Seeds of another indigenous millet, Job’s tears (Coix lacrima-jobi), have been found at Harappa and at the contemporary Ahar-Banas settlement of Balathal, in both cases as beads, a common use for these seeds. #indianhistory indus valley civilization people economy is dependend on their agriculture and trade. Indus traders weighed their goods However, although a number of Harappan metal artifacts were made of bronze (tin-copper alloy), the majority were of copper or copper-arsenic alloy. During the rainy season, when a huge area surrounding Lake Manchar is submerged by floods, modern inhabitants of the region abandon their homes on its shores and take to houseboats, or they live year round on houseboats, a way of life that may have existed in Indus times. Traffic through the Bolan pass would now have come almost exclusively from southern Baluchistan, passing through the Quetta Valley- The use of this route is indicated by the presence of Kulli material in Nausharo in the Kachi plain. A small amount of Setaria sp. The Jodhpura-Ganeshwar people seem to have mined and smelted the copper ore themselves and to have exchanged the smelted copper with Harappans who traveled to the region to trade. The archaeological evidence for Indus agriculture is extremely patchy. The Kot Diji areas of the northern borderlands developed their own separate Late Kot Diji culture, though they continued to trade with the Harappans. In later times when the Mesopotamians obtained timber from the Levant and elsewhere, they undertook expeditions to fell and transport the timber themselves. Whatever their precise use, the very existence of a system of weights standardized through the Indus region implies official control and the regulation of the movement of commodities. A number of Harappan seals, beads, and ivory inlays and a Harappan weight were found at Susa, the Elamite capital, and gaming boards of similar design are known from Susa and Lothal. The irrigation system allowed this civilization to diversify its crops. The Indus Valley economy was heavily based on trading, it was one of the most important characteristics of this civilization. To the east of the Late Kot Diji culture area, in Kashmir, there were settlements of the Northern Neolithic culture, such as Gufkral and Burzahom. Often individual workshops concentrated on producing a particular type of shell artifact or on working a particular variety of shell. Agate and other gemstones for making beads may also have been obtained by hunter- gatherers. Elam, a state comprising Susiana and Anshan in southwest Iran, played a major role in this trade in the early third millennium, establishing trading stations in a number of Iranian towns, including Shahr-i Sokhta in Seistan. Indus Valley traders crossed mountains and forests to trade. Metal tools played an important part in Harappan Industry, such as stone carving and carpentry, and were also used in preference to traditional stone tools for some purposes. They send the merchandise from Lothal. Harappan etched camelian and long barrel camelian beads were found at Susa, as well as a cylinder seal with a Harappan bull-and-manger design and some Indus script signs, and a round seal with a bull and six Harappan signs. This problem is compounded by variations in the standards of recovery in archaeological excavations and by problems of identification. These included Manda, Ropar, and Kotia Nihang Khan in the north, located in the Himalayan foothills on the Chenab and Sutlej Rivers, near where each became navigable. A town was established on the coast at Qala’at al-Bahrain, where there was a good natural harbour. Yet during the later third millennium, the Sumerians were content to rely on supplies brought to them by the Harappans. The trading system had a great contribution towards the social and economic life of Indus Valley Civilization. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. 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